The French term for the process of ripening and aging cheese.
The expert who is responsible for the ripening and aging of cheeses.
A reddish-orangy colored dye that is extracted from the crushed outer seed of the Annato tree indigenous to South America.
An adjective used to describe cheeses with strong and pronounced aromas.
Cheese that is handmade, in small quantities, from the highest quality ingredients, by a skilled cheese maker.
BREVIBACTERIUM LINENS (b. linens)
The bacteria that is found on the surface of washed rind cheeses, giving it its distinct aroma and reddish-orange color.
A cheese shape that is typically small, round, and found with goat cheese.
The primary protein found in cheese.
Cheddar cheese is any cheese that is made through the process of "Cheddaring" where the cheese curd is cut into smaller pieces, cooked, and then stacked on top of each other to expel moisture. Cheddar is not a name protected word and technically can be made anywhere.
The process in which the curd and the whey are raised to a certain temperature to expel more whey and concentrate the curd.
The solid component of coagulated milk.
A cheese that contains at least 60% butterfat in its dry matter.
Farmstead production of cheese that is typically high in quality, made in small batches and less uniform. This term is typically used synonymously with Artisanal although the major difference is that Fermier cheeses uses the milk from their own farm and Artisianal cheeses could source milk from several farms.
A descriptive term for cheese which all butterfat has been removed and in its place a vegetable oil has been used as a substitute. Filled cheese also is referred to as imitation.
(1) The process of finishing, refining or curing cheese to desired ripeness. Soft-ripened cheeses are sprayed on the surface with a harmless white mold (Penicillium Candidum) whose growth helps ripen the cheese. Depending upon cheese variety, other finishing methods include wahing the rinds of cheeses and the daily turning of cheeses. Temperature and humidity are tightly controlled during the finishing process.
(2) Refers to the way a cheese is packaged, such as a hard, natural rind, a bandage of cheesecloth and wax or vacuum packaging.
(3) The aftertaste of cheese may be described as having a clean finish, bitter finish, sour finish, earthy finish and so forth.
A classification of cheese varieties exhibiting a relatively inelastic and unyielding texture like Asiago, Cotija and Parmesan. Federal Standards of Indentity state that firm cheeses have a maximum moisture content of 34 percent and a minimum milkfat content of 50 percent.
A descriptive term referring to the unpleasant flavor of overripe, high-moisture cheese varieties. Often associated with ammoniacal flavors.
A descriptive term for cheese that breaks into flakes when cut. A flaky quality is typical of Parmesan, Romano, Asiago and Cheddar when aged over 10 to 12 months.
(1) A descriptive term for tasteless cheese that normally yields a distinct flavor. Cheese with reduced levels of sodium and salt is often referred to as flat.
(2) A style of Cheddar weighing from 35 to 37 pounds that has been coated with wax and cheesecloth.
A general term for the taste cheese presents as it is eaten. Flavor is detected in the mouth and also by the nose. Flavors, in order of ascending aggressiveness, are described as faint (fleeting), mild (light or bland), pronounced (distinct) or strong (intense). Flavors may also be described by the tastes they resemble, such as nutty, salty, buttery, fruity and peppery. Flavor is categorized by initial tastes as well as by aftertastes.
The French word for Process cheese. This term should not be confused with Fondue, a Swiss dish often made with cheese.
A Swiss cheese often made with cheese.
A method of speeding the ripening of a cheese by using a warmer environment than normal to naturally ripen the cheese. The cheese may be force-ripened at room temperature or in a cooler set at a higher than normal temperature. Ripening may also be accelerated by modifying the enzymes. These cheeses are used primarily in processed cheese and as a food ingredient.
FOREIGN FLAVOR (Chemical)
A descriptive term for a cheese aroma or flavor taint which usually indicates improper manufacturing or contamination with foreign materials.
The Italian word for cheese.
The French word for cheese.
A French word to describe a person with in-depth knowledge of cheese. Sometimes spelled Fromagier.
A descriptive term for the sweet, fragrant aroma or flavor characteristic of certain semi-soft cheeses, such as Pouy De Montagne or American Muenster, and some hard mountain cheese varieties. Baby Swiss and some Cheddars also present a fruity quality.
A descriptive term for cheeses with strong flavors and penetrating aromas.
A descriptive term for cheeses in packaging that becomes bloated. This may be a result of an increase in holding temperature or altitude, or it may indicate microbial production of carbon dioxide.
A style of Cheddar weighing approximately 3 pounds.
A very large style of Provolone, typically weighing 200 to 600 pounds and measuring up to approximately 7 feet in length.
A classification of cheese made from goat's milk.
A category of cheeses referred to as sweet curd cheese.
(1) A descriptive term for gritty texture which is desirable in certain hard-grating cheeses, though not to the point of mealiness. Parmesan and Romano exhibit a granular or grainy texture.
(2) A flavor term that may be used to describe the grain-like (wheat) flavors that occur as the result of ripening.
The Italian term for hard-grating cheese referring to a cheese's hard granular texture. Parmesan, Romano, Asiago, Parmigiano-Reggiano, Grana Padano and Sapsago are among the grana-type cheese varieties.
A descriptive term for cheese with a weedy taste that is related to the type of feed a cow has consumed prior to milking, such as silage, bitterweed, leeks or onions.
With hard cheeses, such as Parmesan, Romano and Asiago, fracturing the cheese into tiny particles is a common style choice. This allows the user to sprinkle the cheese on top of a dish like seasoning.
A split version of a Longhorn-style cheese.
A classification of cheese varieties exhibiting a relatively inelastic and unyielding texture like Cheddar and Swiss. Federal Standards of Identity state that firm cheeses have a maximum moisture content of 34% and a minimum milkfat content of 50%.
A descriptive term for cheeses, such as Parmesan, Romano and Asiago, that are well-aged, easily grated and primarily used in cooking. Federal Standards of Identity dictate that hard-grating cheeses contain a maximum moisture content of 34% and a minimum milkfat content of 32%.
Covers the quality of the response of cheese to the application of heat. The behavior of cheese when heated depends on the form of the prepared cheese, the hardness of the cheese, and the temperature and length of cooking time.
IMMITATION PASTEURIZED PROCESS CHEESE SPREAD
A cheese that possesses all the properties of pasteurized process cheese spread except the butterfat content is significantly lower than federal standards allow for labeling as a cheese spread.
A descriptive term for cheese with strong, concentrated aromas and flavors.
The Dutch word for cheese.
The German word for cheese.
(1) A general description applied to cheese exhibiting a clean, wholesome, milky and slightly acidic flavor or aroma.
(2) The type of organisms included in starter cultures for cheesemaking.
Natural sugar found in most milks.
A human condition in which the digestive system is not able to properly break down the natural sugar found in milk and dairy products. Common symptoms tend to be excessive gas or diarrhea.
(1) An enzyme found in raw milk, also produced by microorganisms that split fat molecules into fatty acids.
(2) Lipase flavor is a term also used to describe rancidity, especially where these flavors are desired in cheeses.
This rectangular-shaped style is the standard 5-to-9 pound cut with a 4-by-4- inch face, ideal for deli slicing and consumers or chefs to use in their sandwich creations.
A style of cheese, usually Colby or Colby-Jack, weighing approximately 12 to 13 pounds, cylindrical with a 6-inch diameter, about 13 inches long.
A style of cheese, usually Cheddar, weighing between 75 and 2,000 pounds.
A Provolone style that weighs approximately 20 to 25 pounds and resembles the shape of an egg. Ropes are tied around the cheese for hanging for proper aging.
The white brandy or eau de vie made from grape pomace. Marc may be used as a solution for curing washed-rind cheese.
Small, irregular openings in the body of the cheese caused by manufacturing methods, not by gas fermentation. Colby, Brick, Muenster and Monterey Jack are varieties with natural, mechanical openings.
The various methods of handling cheese during preparation (i.e. shredding, grating, slicing with a knife, slicing on an electric slicer, crumbling, etc.).
Generally semi-firm, firm or hard cheeses that have been cured for three to six months. Medium-aged cheeses are usually mellow and smooth textured. Frequently used to describe Cheddars.
Italian for "Spun Paste", it is a term referring to Italian stretched curd cheeses such as Mozzarella, Burrata, and Provolone.
The process of heating milk to kill off certain bacteria. The typical procedure is to heat the milk for 15-30 seconds at 160 degrees Fahrenheit.
The French word to describe a shape of cheese that resembles paving stones in French towns.
The mold that is used to create the white, velvety rind in bloomy rind cheeses.
The mold that is injected into cheeses to promote the growth of the blue-green veins in typical blue cheeses.
Cheeses that have been pressed to release more whey.
The enzyme that is used to coagulate cheese. Rennet typically comes from the stomach lining of animals but vegetarian forms of rennet are also present.
The exterior of the cheese.
A cheese that contains at least 75% butterfat in its dry matter.
The liquid portion of the milk left over when milk is coagulated.